conventional academic establishments in child education in Sierra Leone

INTRODUCTIONSierra Leone is bounded at the north-west, north and north-east by using the Republic Guinea, at the south-east via the Republic of Liberia and on south-west through the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 27,925 square miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession in 1787 by way of local chiefs to English settlers of a bit of land supposed as a home for African settlers who were waifs in London and later it become used as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland become declared a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 1961 and became a Republic in 1971. education is provided via each private and country-sponsored colleges. The current gadget of training is 6-three-four-4 (this is six years number one school, three years Junior Secondary faculty, four years Senior Secondary faculty and four years tertiary/higher training. This gadget is complemented by means of non- formal schooling.idea OF EDUCATIONEducation is regularly used inside the sense of guidance within the classroom, laboratory, workshop or domestic science room and consists mainly in the offering by the teacher, and the acquisition with the aid of students, of statistics and mental as well as guide abilties. a wider which means than preparation is that of schooling. that is to mention all that goes on in the faculty as a part of the student’s existence there. It includes, amongst different matters, dating among students and instructors, scholars and students each in and outside the college. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that something facilitates to form the individual; to make the individual what he’s or avoid him from being what he isn’t always is part of his schooling. Implicitly schooling is lifelong and ubiquitous; it is the sum general of all impacts which visit make someone what he’s, from start to loss of life. It consists of the home, our acquaintances, and the street amongst is to a point a deliberate planned technique devised and conducted through the educator with the purpose of imbuing the learner with certain information, skills, of mind and frame as well as modes of conduct taken into consideration suited. In part it’s far the learner’s own reaction to the environment wherein he lives. training has 3 focal factors: the character/man or woman upon whom the educator’s affects are introduced to bear; the society or community to which he belongs; and the whole context of fact within which the person and society play their part. guy is a social creature; he grows as a person through the impact of character on persona; and even for his fundamental bodily needs he depends at the help and cooperation of his fellow men and women. with out society and the mutual aid and enrichment of experiences which it presents civilization is impossible and the existence of man, in Hobbes’ words, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and brief.”one of the essential information of human existence is the tension between the pull of the beyond and the forward urge into the destiny, among stability and exchange, way of life and innovation. For effective residing,guy wishes a circle of safety, an area of established behavior and dating which bureaucracy reliable relationships. this is also true of society. For its effective functioning there have to be an underlying continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its identity as a society and safeguards it in opposition to the disruptive outcomes of trade. change have to be for existence and now not static however this alteration in flip ought to be controlled by using the basic traditions of society. it is lifestyle which gives a country its character and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of lifestyle consequently is obviously’s been identified from time immemorial that the conservation of conventional schooling has a vital element to play inside the development of the child. The children of today are the adults of day after today; they must be taught therefore, to inherit and perpetuate the ideals and modes of existence bizarre to the unique society to which they belong. For each society has the preference to maintain itself not most effective bodily but as network consciously sharing sure objectives, beliefs and patterns of conduct. This kind of training isn’t always necessarily formal in faculties through classroom practise but that effected circuitously via the family and via the effect at the individual of social influences and customs which the kid cannot evade. In Sierra Leone this social training covered complicated ceremonies of initiation regarding feats of staying power wherein young men and women have to prove themselves worth of the community. The final purpose turned into to produce an character who turned into honest, respectful, professional, cooperative, and who could agree to the social order of the day. As Aristotle as soon as said “the charter of a state will suffer if schooling is ignored. The citizens of a kingdom ought to continually be knowledgeable to fit the charter of the kingdom. The form of person appropriate to a constitution is the electricity which keeps to maintain it as it’s also the state pressure which originally created it” (p. I).conventional education IN SOCIETYTraditional education has each a creative and conservation characteristic in society; it’s miles a powerful method of preserving a society’s customs, if no longer culture. in the beyond the character and wishes of society performed a important element in determining the character of schooling. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) once wrote in his book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil society the instructional system will have a tendency to mirror the social pattern, whilst social uneasiness and instability create possibility for the usage of schooling as an instrument of social exchange”(p.7). A comparable view become shared with the aid of John Dewey (1897) who opined that via training society can formulate its very own functions, can arrange its very own manner and resources and for that reason keep itself with definiteness and economic system in the path in which it wishes to move. schooling appears each to the beyond and the destiny; inevitably it displays the traditions and man or woman of society. traditional training may be used to put together for changes in society and count on and save you adjustments or the effects of changes in society.traditional education conserves and arms at the customs and methods of lifestyles which constitute the person of a society and maintains its solidarity. It also helps society to interpret its capabilities in new methods to satisfy the challenges of alternate, searching for ways or strains of development which can be regular with the traditions and customs and could on the equal time raise society to a extra complete fulfillment of itself.
traditional instructional establishments IN SIERRA LEONEHistory famous that there had been no formal schools in which kids have been knowledgeable in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande secret Societies were appeared upon as establishments to educate youngsters. They have been bush colleges. And the education these bush faculties supplied turned into casual. children who went thru those secret societies had been taken into consideration capable of sporting out their civic obligations. They became adults and may marry and begin life. They considered themselves as one family. In different words each mystery Societies created a sense of comradeship and unity among members irrespective of family, clan or ethnic association. It turned into consequently taken into consideration that kids who had not gone via those secret societies were not fully matured.The Poro secret Society is for boys. The spiritual head of the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, seen only by means of the older graduates or individuals. The physical heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and dad Somanos. They direct the activities of the group. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who generally teach and give instructions to other initiators. The Pa Manchiyas function instructors to the initiates even as the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the girls and kids alike collectively with the brand new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys wearing messages around. The Yambas are the top boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects whilst the Sayboms are the prefects; and the monitors are the Gbanaboms. informal lessons are held in the mystery Poro Bush. The topics taught consist of innovative sensible Arts, performing Arts, realistic Agriculture, remedy i.e. use of local herbs for the remedy of different illnesses), struggle and other capabilities. In creative sensible Arts initiates are taught a way to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wooden and cleaning soap stones into unique gadgets such as animals and human beings; in performing Arts initiates are taught making a song, dancing and using Poro musical contraptions. In sensible Agriculture initiates practice farming. Boys are taught to bear trouble with out complaint and develop conversant in it. hence they’re taken to the farms in their instructors and elders to work on seasoned bono basis. however in the course of the harvest season initiates should skip via these farms taking something they need and consume with out being wondered through farm owners. Initiates are taught to admire elders and use of weapons to kill animals. In a comparable vein initiates are taught how to use weapons in preventing in protection of their groups. other capabilities initiates are taught consist of making fish traps, fishing and hunting net, and basketry. inside the use of herbs initiates pay cash (a few freely given) for recuperation various diseases as well as for safety towards enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who need to purpose damage to others the usage of herbs should ‘redeem’ the herb/medicinal drug concerned. Over all initiates are taught a brand new Language spoken most effective with the aid of contributors known as Ke Sornor. for example fonka trika which means i am speaking to you; fonka bonomi which means communicate to me. the use of this new Language makes graduates very proud and sense distinctive from non-initiates. Graduates come out with new names which include Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A graduation ceremony climaxes the occasion.mother and father make large preparations together with stitching clothes for the graduates. To mark the graduation ceremony there may be feasting, ingesting, dancing and making a song reward songs for the graduates and their mother and father. the ones certified for initiation should had been circumcised and grown to age of puberty. They must stay on their very own all through the duration of education which levels from one to seven years. Graduates are absolutely admitted to the overall Poro society thru some other ceremony called Enkorie, which lasts for 4 days.The Bondo/Sande Society is the group where women are educated for womanhood. Its spiritual head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the bodily heads. those have religious powers used to predict the future and catch witches. they’re the senior teachers. The Na Sokos are the service instructors. they can provoke women even as much as the advanced level of the Society. The Digbas are the overall instructors and live close to the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand women/women. They make bulletins approximately the development and activities or applications during the graduation rite.The Na Fets, because the call implies do not know all the secrecy of the organization. they bring about the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the higher reputation of the group. girls admitted to the Bondo/Sande Society are trained informally. lessons are held at Kantha or sacred domestic. the teachers are in large part worried with the transmission to those adolescent ladies the abilities and knowledge which grownup girls are predicted to possess as a way to feature well and intelligently in their community. The subjects girls are taught consist of Cooking, appearing Arts, Fishing, Husband and baby Care, and domestic management. In Cooking women are taught the way to prepare meals through remark and participation inside the guidance of diverse dishes and are later allowed to have a go along with little or no supervision. folks who could not cook well are allowed to copy. In acting Arts ladies are taught how to compose and sing songs and a way to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). alongside singing ladies are taught the way to dance and those who dance properly may be a part of the hierarchy of the Sampas. women also are taught the way to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, napping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. similarly ladies are taught the way to assist their prospective husbands and how to take care of kids in particular the ones of senior participants. just like the Poro Society graduation ceremonies are marked by using huge arrangements. both dad and mom and prospective husbands could buy new attire, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. on the day of the graduation rite the new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. they come out with new names such as Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates a sign of adulthood. initiating ladies into Bondo/Sande society lasts between a few months and three years.CHALLENGESIf schooling has the crucial characteristic of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a changing environment, and of elevating them to richer and extra fruitful expression then both the Poro and Bondo/Sande mystery Societies, as traditional marketers of this process need to experience a position of the highest esteem. thru these secret societies the state’s tradition flows from one generation to the opposite and the aspirations of society are focused with intimate and telling persuasion upon the young. They stand at a point in which the energies of youngsters are launched into new and creative possibilities. via those secret societies youngsters take into account the past sports of their predecessors. They help in behavioral schooling patterns of society. those societies are establishments of proposal and each politicians and chiefs use them to gain. this is to both gain or hold strength. predominant and binding selections are taken inside the Poro Bush of which simplest members are allowed to wait and take part. The Poro secret Society acts as a check in opposition to the abuse of energy. In disaster ridden situations predominant decision are taken in the Poro Bush. The Poro society even acts as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and will promulgate wellknown legal guidelines and modify buying and selling practices. it is also involved inside the burial of chiefs and different vital local officers (Alie, 1990).Western education has existed within the country for lengthy and is now so indispensable part of the civilized life that there is an inclination to count on that it’s miles the main or sole means of supplying capabilities, understanding and social values in children. This isn’t always the case in Sierra Leone. The significance of the Poro and Bondo traditional secret societies can not be over-sighted because of their full-size potentiality in educating youngsters for life in society. fundamental is that recognize for men and women as men and women is the basis of traditional society. linked with that is courtesy, sensitivity to the wishes of others, cooperativeness, 30afb5cb81d2c864346e13b9bc61f312, ethical and physical braveness, tough work and excessive requirements of success. these are handed directly to kids within the surroundings wherein they may be a part of their every day experiences. notwithstanding, those traditional establishments as retailers of training are presently faced with many demanding situations there-by using forcing their demise. The exercise of girl genital circumcision is of worldwide subject and in Sierra Leone people are agitating for its general ban. presently ladies are allowed to be circumcised at age eighteen throughout which period a child is gave the impression to be matured enough to choose whether or not to be initiated into the Bondo/Sande mystery society. in addition the period of initiation is perceived too lengthy and is being challenged. except kids these days no longer need to be initiated into those societies to be trained how to be clean, cook dinner, rear children, practice agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to quote a few examples. a lot of these may be learnt both in or outside formal schooling through studying. what is greater religion, especially Christianity and Islam, western lifestyles, in addition to rural-city migration are forcing these secret societies to obliteration.besides the activities and paintings of these traditional societies are not in curriculum shape and documented. Neither is also the usage of herbs documented. consequently by discontinuing those conventional mystery societies Sierra Leoneans stand to lose their cultural heritage. If but, education has the vital feature of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a converting environment, and of raising them to a richer and more fruitful expression then these traditional mystery societies, as agents of this manner must revel in a role of the very best esteem. thru those societies the national subculture flows from one generation to some other and the aspirations of society are centered with intimate and telling persuasion upon the young. these mystery societies stand at the point wherein the energies of children are released into new and innovative opportunities.

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